Menyatakan Dugaan -겠-

Akhiran ini dilekatkan pada bentuk dasar kata kerja atau kata sifat untuk menyatakan dugaan. Apabila dilekatkan bersamaan
dengan akhiran bentuk honorifik -시- atau akhiran kala lampau -았/었-, maka -겠- dilekatkan setelah akhiran -시-
dan atau -았/었-.

1. 하늘에 구름이 많아요. 내일 비가 오겠어요. Langit berawan. Besok sepertinya akan hujan.
2. 피곤하시겠어요. 좀 쉬세요. Anda pasti lelah. Beristirahatlah.
3. 부디 씨는 시험을 잘 봐서 좋겠어요. Budi, (Anda) pasti senang karena Anda mengerjakan ujian dengan baik.
4. 이 케이크 정말 맛있겠어요. Kue tar ini sepertinya betul-betul enak.
5. A 어제는 정말 바빴겠어요. A Sepertinya kemarin betul-bentul sibuk.
6. B 네, 하지만 지금은 괜찮아요. B Ya, tetapi sekarang tidak.


Sumber :

User Management on Linux

Hi people!

Currently, I’m working in a software vendor. Most of all engineers do login to server with same account and the access for some directories is not restricted. To prevent something bad happen intentionally or accidentally, the need to manage user accounts has emerged. I was ordered to create a small manual for configuring user access and files permission. So here, I share to you my case and my solution.

Case :

  1. Create users in a group.
  2. Users must change the password after the first login.
  3. Users are given access to certain directories and they are able to run applications inside without entering authentication phase.
  4. Users are not able to alter anything in those directories

Steps :

  1. Create user in a group.
useradd -G [group name] [username]
  1. Create user in a group along with user home base initiation.
useradd -G [group name] [username] –home [home path]
  1. Edit user home base or initiate it (if user doesn’t have).
usermod -m -d [home path] [username]
  1. (Optional) See user list of a group.
getent group [group name]
  1. (Optional) create or change user’s password.
passwd [username]
  1. Make user able to run application directly without get in authentication first. –

a. Open “sudoers file”

sudo visudo

b. Insert syntax below at “ # User privilege specification” section.

[username] ALL=( [group name] ) NOPASSWD:[application location]

c. Press crtl + X to exit then press Y for saving changes or N for discarding changes.

  1. Changing permission of folder and permisson of files separately.
Find ./[files path] [mode] -exec chmod [type of access] {} \

Type  -type f for file or  -type d for directory at mode. That syntax is recursive, if changing is expected happened for certain layers only, type -maxdepth [layer depth] between mode and -exec .

  1. Force user to change password at first time of login.
    chage -d 0 [username]
  2. Schedule user to change password periodically.
    sudo chage -E[mm/dd/yyyy] -m [number of days] -M [number of days] -I [number of days] -W [number of days] [username]


                    sudo chage -E 11/10/2016  -m 6 -M 90 -I 5 -W 15 first.user  


    -E : Explicit expiration date.

    User must renew the password at this date and It is the initial time for system to count the age of password and to run the schedule effectively.

    -m : Password minimum age.

    This is a mininum gap between two password renewals. System will reject password update if the time of submitting less than password minimum age.

    -M : Password maximum age.

    It this the due date for user to update his password.

    -I : Inactive period

    If user has not updated his password after due date, his account will be inactive for this period.

    -W : Warning time period

    User will be notified at this time about the expiration of password.

  3. (Optional) See user account status
sudo chage – l [username]



DW Audiotrainer Exercise Key – Part 1

When I searched for the best method to master a language, I found many sources said that listening to Audiotrainer help you to memorize vocabulary with its sounds  and spelling. So, I decide to choose Audiotrainer from Deutsche Welle to make my brain works with German. I admit those audiotrainers are amazing learning tools because I get myself becomes familiar with some of grammar.

But I was so disappointed when DW doesn’t provide any exercise keys unless exercise sheets. So I was starting to wonder on how I could correct my answer precisely. I think making my own made exercise keys is not a bad idea because DW put it on A2 level. So it means the sentences might be simple and basic.

After I begin this work, I find some sources provide the keys and I think it won’t stop me to keep working because I believe if it does not challenge you then it won’t change you.

So thanks so much for reading this article and if you are currently looking for the keys, I hope mine will help you.

51 – Running errands – Besorgungen machen

52 – In the department store – Im Kaufhaus

53 – Shops – Geschäfte

54 – Shopping – Einkaufen

55 – Working – Arbeiten